In the wild, Chiloe Wigeon have a vast range in the southern part of South America, where they frequent marshes, pools, and slow-moving rivers in the breeding season. As a result of their large distribution, they are currently classed as of least Concern by the IUCN
After breeding, they disperse to the coast and migrate north as far as Brazil for the southern winter. As with most ducks, they can travel far and fast at times, and have reached South Georgia and other sub-Antarctic islands, and also breed on the Falkland Islands.
Breeding in Chiloe wigeons is similar to most ducks. The nest is a scrape concealed in waterside vegetation, and 6-10 eggs are the usual clutch. Although the male does not incubate, he guards the nest area (and probably the female) against predators and rival males. The ducklings fledge at around 6 -8 weeks, but will probably not breed until they are at least one year old and more usually two. In captivity at least they can live to be 20 years old.